Uchisar, is located 7 km east of Nevsehir. When the subject is Uchisar, the first thing comes to mind is Uchisar Castle. This giant rock mass with 50 m height has the ability to show itself to us from a far distance. It is not known who was the first constructors of the Castle. The Castle which was constructed on the highest point of the region (1400 m) has been used as an important defense point against Arab invasions during Roman and Byzantine periods. Today, most of the hollows that we see around the Castle and on the rocks surround the Castle, have been engraved as graves during the Roman period. During Anatolian Beyliks period (12-14th centuries), the Castle was used as a frontier area. Since the Castle was the eastern border of Selljuks, western border of Kadi Burhanettin Beyliks and eastern border of Karamanogullan; it was called as ‘Uchisar’ during these periods.
The castles of Bashisar (Urgup), Ortahisar and Uchisar were located on the highest points of the region and during Seljuk period, they were the three main guarding points of Nevsehir. During that period, there was a high population living around Uchisar Castle which as kind of a frontier beylik. In order to cover the water need of the population of the area, Seljuks carried water through pipes from Gem/7 Mountain, situated 3 km south of the area by using the altitude difference. Sporadically, the small pools were built up both to rest and purify the water and to prevent the explosion of the pipes due to the high pressure. During that period, it is known that 5 fountains and 2 wash houses (Asbap Pmari) have been built. Three of the fountains were able to reach today. The water of the fountains stil follows the same route. One of the wash houses was located in Asagi Mahalle and it is also known as Asagi Mahalle Fountain. It is known that during Karamanogullan period, the brother of the chief of Kayseri Beylik was the chief of Uchisar Beylik. During that period, Uchisar had the chance of protecting its situation as a border between Karamanogullan, Kadi Burhanettin and Osmanli Beylik. After Osmanli Beylik’s ruling in the region on 1398 by Beyazit II, it is known that the Uchisar Castle capitulated to Beyazit II. After that date, the Ottoman domination started in the region. On 1530, during the first census of population, it was defined that 2663 people was living in Uchisar. Actually the Uchisar Castle consists of two adjacent tapered. Among the locals, the big one is called as Agamn Kalesi (Castle of Agha)’ and the small one is called ‘Cavusun Kalesi (Castle of Sergeant)’.The Castle, which has a multiplex looking, can be reached by an inner staircase. On different floors of the Castle there are rooms for many aims, graves and various tunnels. The edges of the tunnels were covered by big round shape stones called as latch stone. The Castle also has a very impressive cistern. In order to provide water to the Castle during long lasting enclosures, a tunnel was digged towards Karankemer Stream which is flowing under. Since today most parts of the tunnel were collapsed and plugged, it is impossible to see it. Inside the Castle there is also a cave to be used by the inhabitants of the Castle during the wars. There are three different tunnels to reach to this cave. The tunnels combines in a big hall and the latch stones were used to cover the edges of the tunnels. One of them can be seen today. I think, there is no need to tell you that, as you climb up the Uchisar Castle, the excellent view of whole Cappadocia will welcome you and you will feel Cappadocia under your feet. But anyway, we would like to remind you that this is the only point where you can see Hasan and Erciyes Mountain in the same frame.