THE FRESCO OF CATALHOYUK  We can accept that the long history of Cappadocia starts with a wall fresco found in the oldest neolithic city of Çatalhöyük. This wall fresco is renowned as the oldest scenic painting of the world and shows one of the volcanic mountains of the region, namely the Hasandağ. On this fresco which is dated back to 6200 B.C, we see the houses of Çatalhöyük in the front with the mountain’s smoke, volcanic bombs, and the flowing lava as its setting. This fresco with the doublepeaked Hasandağ is now at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara. The fresco is an indicator of the decorative taste of the local population of those times. It is furthermore geologically important in that, it is a proof of the volcanic activity of Hasandağ which was eternally carved on a plate by a local artist.

Cappadocia witnessed the existence of a series of small and independent kingdoms ruled by princes in 5000-4000 B.C. The most important city of this period has been ” Pruskanda”.

This is also the period when the Anatolian peoples took up commercial relations with their eastern, northern, and southern neighbors. These relations have not always been free of friction, and we see that 17 Anatolian kings ( including the king of Cappadocia- Kanesh) have united in 2300 B.C against the Assyrian king Naramsin, and that this block has fought with him. This union is also the very first alliance of Anatolian history ever mentioned.

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