The first examples of free zones in Anatolia

Beginning from Neolithic period human being’s settling down and establishing villages and sites as well as the necessity of corresponding the needs of the cities have brought up tho intor-civilazation commercial. The period of WO years between 1900 and 1800 BC, was named by the historians ;is ‘Assyrian Commercial Colonial Era’ because of Assyrians’ establishing commercial collonies in Anatolia. By paying taxes to the local kingdoms, the Assyrian traders have been established ‘Karum’ which were market like districts, nearby the big cities. These districts can be accepted as the first implementation of the today’s free zones, 4000 years ago. The Assyrian traders have been brought tin and textile from Mesopotamia by caravan consisted of 200 -250 donkeys and as a reward for in Anatolia, they have been bought gold and silver.
The Hittites, Anatolian glory
It is assumed that Assyrian Commercial Colony period has been ended as the traders left Anatolia because of the wars between the local kingdoms around 1800 BC. The foundlings of fire in many of the Karums, which has belonged to Assyrians, are supporting this thesis quite a lot.
We might say that, at the beginning of 1900 BC, the Hittites period has started in Anatolia. It is thought that Hittites were one of the local nations of Anatolia but beside this thesis, there is an other one which says that, Hittites came from Caucasians to Anatolia. It seems that this discussion will be clear as the new foundlings and researches are done. According to the written tablets, the first settlement of Hittites were in the cities ofKussara and Nesa. It is anticipated that Ku§sara is today’s Ali§ar close to Corum and Ne§a is today’s Kanis close to Kayseri. Later on, Hittites have chosen Hattu§as near Qorum as a capital city. It is known that the first political unification in Anatolia has been created by Hittites. According to the written tablets that have been found in archives of Bogazkoy, Anitta, the King ofKussara, has been successful in gathering many independent cities of Anatolia under one governence by using the tactic of night descents. In later periods, in some of the texts it was written that some Hittite Kings have been crowing of being the grandchild of this man of Ku§§ara. During the years of 1500 BC, the strongest civilazations on earth were the Egyptians, Babylonians, Mitannis and Hittites. Because of this list, one may understand clearly that, the Hittite Civilazation who has been ruled Anatolia nearly 1000 years, has effected deeply the nations and civilizations established after them. The Hittite State history can be examined in three parts
The land of Anatolia, has been witnessed transaction of hordes which have been come from west and called ‘Sea Horde’ in Egyptian sources. This horde transaction, called ‘Aegean Emigration’ in the history, hns rnvngod everything that they cnmo across. This emigration got the biggest power in 1200 BC and because of them many of the great civilazations have lost power and fall down in time line. The falling down of Hittite Empire in central Anatolia and the falling down of Troia in Western Anatolia happened in this period as well.
The Hittite Empire has been fall down but it has not been disappear totally. Following the falling of the empire, there occured many city states in Anatolia. These city states, which
have been ruled the land for 500 years, have been called The Neo Hittite City States. The Neo Hittite City States created different styles due to the settlement area and nations that they
encountered with. As the Urartian State (840-585 BC) was being established in Eastern Anatolia, the dark era was dominating in
Central and Western Anatolia. This era can be accepted as deterioration and anarchy era in Anatolia in general. Since the usage of scripture was getting less, the historians calls this period Iron Era (1250-750 BC), they accept and examine it among the prehistoric eras.

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