The end of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire cappadocia The end of the Hittite Empire cappadocia The “People of the Sea”; who they were exactly is not known, but the term ought to have applied to several races, among them the Doric peoples who settled in Northern Greece and the Phrygians who crossed the Marmara straits and invaded Asia Minor with devastating savagery. Only the Egyptians were able to resist against their onslaught.
One of the inscriptions of the Temple of Medinet Haby fostered by the pharaoh Rameses III (1198-1166 B.C.) tells about “an alliance of Philistines, Sechu, Shekaleshi, Deni and Veshesi,” of whom only the Philistines could be identified due to their frequent appearance in the Holy Scriptures. Some scholars ventured the theory that the “Deni” might be identical with the “Danai” in Homer’s Iliad.
The records of Rameses III read: “…All of a sudden the nations of the north disintegrated and disappeared in battle. No people could resist their arms, starting with Hatti, Kode (Kizzuwatna), Carchemish, Arzawa and Alasia (Cyprus) which were all destroyed. The invaders established themselves in a huge camp in the region of Amurru (Northern Lebanon) and they exterminated the local population. The land became as though it never existed.”
Around 1200 B.C. vanished the Minoan and Cretan civilizations; the Dors occupied Northern Greece (the term “Dor” corresponds with the Ger-Mannen (Germans), meaning “lancers,” warriors who fight with javelins).
The Egyptians repelled at least two attempted invasions by those mysterious People of the Sea.
To the same period belongs the famous Troyan War, the entry of the Etruscans into Italy and the Jewish occupation of Palestine.
It is certain that the Phrygians belonged to the People of the Sea who invaded Anatolia.
Phrygian settlements and artifacts unearthed near Hattusas tend to underline their participation in the burning of the Hittite capital.
In the Assyrian records of Tiglatpilaser (ca 1100 B.C.) the Phrygians were called “Muski.”
Toward 750 B.C.—after nearly four centuries of silence—the Assyrian annals mention the “Muski” anew, together with their King Mitas (better known by his Greek name Midas) of the Migdones (Macedonians) whose capital city lay near Gordion, at Yassi Hüyük, west of Ankara. The land used to be part of the Hittite Empire.
The destruction of the Hittites was absolute. By 546 B.C., when the Persians conquered Anatolia and terminated the Phrygian Kingdom, not even the memory of the Hittites existed. The once mighty nation “survived” only in the Holy Scriptures and the Assyrian annals.
Some thirty kilometers northeast of Hattusas, Alacahüyük was inhabited between 3000 and 1200 B.C. Around 2200 B.C. it was the capital city of a wealthy principality, the gold and silver trasures of which rivalled those of King Priam of Troy, found by Schliemann.
From the thirteen royal tombs excavated between 1935 and 1948 by Turkish archeologists, professors R. Arik and Hamit Kosay, sophisticated jewels and artifacts have been recovered, all made of gold, silver and electrum (an alloy of gold and silver); utensils, weapons and tools of bronze and meteoritic iron— dated to 2300-2100 B.C.
In the city proper, at a profoundity of six meters lie engraved discs depicting bulls and deer, representing a male divinity, the future Hittite God of Tempest, and the Supreme Goddess—the would be Hittite Sun Goddess of Arinna.
Contrary to the archaic custom of burying the dead within the city, in fact beneath the floor, of the individual dwellings like at Catalhüyük, here the dead were interred outside the inhabited area, laid upon their right side facing west, the direction of sunset—death.