Saint Theodoros Trion Church

The 19th century church, located in Bayramli quarter and very close to Derinkuyu Underground City. Due to the inscription over the west entrancn of the Church, it is written that, the Church has been constructed on 15 May 1858, with the permission of Ottoman Sultan Abdulmecid and the donations of Malakopia (Derinkuyu) Christians. Today the first two letters of the date section of inscription is damaged. On the top of the inscription there is a cross relief with ivy look and there are four birds situated at the corners. On the right and left side of the cross there are other relieves such as on the left side Saint Georgios figured on the horse and fighting with a serpent (monster). Beside the stone work of the Church, the bell tower is also very attractive. And fortunately the frescoes of the Church had the chance of reaching today. During Republic period, the Church has been used as a mill for a long time. Once it was used as a museum and today the Church is closed to public but one or two times in a year it is open to Christians for using.

The community of Anatolia before the Hittites

During the Bronze Age, especially on the period between 3000 BC and 2000 BC, it is known that communities which tried to become a nation such as Hattis, LUVIs and Hurrians, have been existed on Anatolian lands. Unfortunately we do not have that much information about these communities. In recent years, the conception of these communities’ being Anatolia originated become prevalent. The only information that we have today Is, these communities effected quite alot the nations especially the Hittites, existed after them. Due to language, scripture and religous life, the Hittites were effected by their peers not only before them but also in their era. This interaction occured because of their living together for many years.

Dervent Valley

This terrace is on the road of Avanos-Urgup and 5 km far from Avanos. The area of scenery terrace is in the Orgiip-Avanos district border. The Dervent Valley extending from Zelve Open Air Museum to Orgup is a very nice trekking and excursion area. Animal like formations in the valley of interesting view of fairy chimneys are amazing. The camel like rock just by side of the road became a symbol of the area, so to speak. If you continue to walk into the valley, and depending on your imagination you can see seal, lion, bull, bird, etc. You may stay above on the terrace and watch the valley in which photographers can find many subjects to shoot.

The historical ages in Anatolia

The history starts with scripture. At this sense, human being’s finding the scripture is the turning point in history. The period before the scripture is named as prehistoric period and by the usage of scripture the periods are named as historical ages. The first usage of scripture has been reclined on 3200 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The usage of scripture became widespread in Anatolia starting from 1900 BC. The scripture has been brought to Anatolia by Assyrians who had commercial aims. That’s why, the beginning of Historical Ages in Anatolia befitted to Assyrians Commercial Colonies Era (1900-1800 BC).

Hittites and scripture

It is known that the Hittites are the first community in Anatolia, used scripture. The Hittites used two different types of scriptures. One of them was cuneiform script which they have learnt from Assyrian trade men and the other was Hittite hieroglyph. They have translated Assyrian cuneiform script into their own language and used it mainly for commercial correspondences. Later on the other cuneiform script that used by Hittites was Babylon originated and used between 1650 BC and 1200 BC. The scripture known as Hittite Hieroglyph was developed by LUVIs, one of Anatolian communities. This type of scripture has been developed on the basis of symbols during the Assyrian Colonies Era and later on it has become a scripture of diagram and syllables. The Hittites mostly used this scripture on cave carved and stone monuments. The language of this scripture mostly used by the local inhabitants called LUVICIAN.

Zelve Open Air Museum

If you continue 1 more km after Pasabaglan road you will drop in front of the Zelve Open Air Museum. The place of the open air museum used to be the place of Zelve Village. The village that we called Old Zelve is known as one of the important religious centers of the Christianity between 9th and 13th centuries. A large population was living in the village where initial religious seminars given to priests. The Old Zelve settlement established by carving the rocks at slopes of three big valleys survived as a center where Greeks and Turks used to live together till 1924 exchange. Following the exchange only Turkish communities continued to live here. After 1950, due to the risque of collapse of rocks, the village was evacuated and moved to 2 km far Aktepe Village. Some called it New Zelve. Zelve Open Air Museum is one of the most popular visiting sites with its natural formations, impressive landscape and historical structures. Around 15 churches without frescoes built during Iconoclasm take place at the museum site.

The first examples of free zones in Anatolia

Beginning from Neolithic period human being’s settling down and establishing villages and sites as well as the necessity of corresponding the needs of the cities have brought up tho intor-civilazation commercial. The period of WO years between 1900 and 1800 BC, was named by the historians ;is ‘Assyrian Commercial Colonial Era’ because of Assyrians’ establishing commercial collonies in Anatolia. By paying taxes to the local kingdoms, the Assyrian traders have been established ‘Karum’ which were market like districts, nearby the big cities. These districts can be accepted as the first implementation of the today’s free zones, 4000 years ago. The Assyrian traders have been brought tin and textile from Mesopotamia by caravan consisted of 200 -250 donkeys and as a reward for in Anatolia, they have been bought gold and silver.
The Hittites, Anatolian glory
It is assumed that Assyrian Commercial Colony period has been ended as the traders left Anatolia because of the wars between the local kingdoms around 1800 BC. The foundlings of fire in many of the Karums, which has belonged to Assyrians, are supporting this thesis quite a lot.
We might say that, at the beginning of 1900 BC, the Hittites period has started in Anatolia. It is thought that Hittites were one of the local nations of Anatolia but beside this thesis, there is an other one which says that, Hittites came from Caucasians to Anatolia. It seems that this discussion will be clear as the new foundlings and researches are done. According to the written tablets, the first settlement of Hittites were in the cities ofKussara and Nesa. It is anticipated that Ku§sara is today’s Ali§ar close to Corum and Ne§a is today’s Kanis close to Kayseri. Later on, Hittites have chosen Hattu§as near Qorum as a capital city. It is known that the first political unification in Anatolia has been created by Hittites. According to the written tablets that have been found in archives of Bogazkoy, Anitta, the King ofKussara, has been successful in gathering many independent cities of Anatolia under one governence by using the tactic of night descents. In later periods, in some of the texts it was written that some Hittite Kings have been crowing of being the grandchild of this man of Ku§§ara. During the years of 1500 BC, the strongest civilazations on earth were the Egyptians, Babylonians, Mitannis and Hittites. Because of this list, one may understand clearly that, the Hittite Civilazation who has been ruled Anatolia nearly 1000 years, has effected deeply the nations and civilizations established after them. The Hittite State history can be examined in three parts
The land of Anatolia, has been witnessed transaction of hordes which have been come from west and called ‘Sea Horde’ in Egyptian sources. This horde transaction, called ‘Aegean Emigration’ in the history, hns rnvngod everything that they cnmo across. This emigration got the biggest power in 1200 BC and because of them many of the great civilazations have lost power and fall down in time line. The falling down of Hittite Empire in central Anatolia and the falling down of Troia in Western Anatolia happened in this period as well.
The Hittite Empire has been fall down but it has not been disappear totally. Following the falling of the empire, there occured many city states in Anatolia. These city states, which
have been ruled the land for 500 years, have been called The Neo Hittite City States. The Neo Hittite City States created different styles due to the settlement area and nations that they
encountered with. As the Urartian State (840-585 BC) was being established in Eastern Anatolia, the dark era was dominating in
Central and Western Anatolia. This era can be accepted as deterioration and anarchy era in Anatolia in general. Since the usage of scripture was getting less, the historians calls this period Iron Era (1250-750 BC), they accept and examine it among the prehistoric eras.

Ayvali Church

Ayvali Church: It was built as dual space. Spaces are connected to each other by a door. Ornaments dated back to periods of before and after iconoclasm (726-843) can be seen together. A fresco on the connection door showing the Four Riders of Armageddon is spectacular. Hagh (Crossed) Church: There are two relief crosses at the plain roof of the church: the big one is Latin cross, and small one is Malta cross. At the end of the single main space, the apsis of the church takes place, and several frescoes at the apsis. You can see the fresco describing symbolically Jesus and four Bible writers around him. Yovakim and Anna Church: As known, Yovakim and Anna shown at the scene of Maria’s birth at the frescoes of the church are father and mother of Maria. The name of the church comes from this case. Although it was painted before the Iconoclasm, it is one of rare churches of which frescoes reached today. This church is a group of buildings. There are small chapels on right and left sides of the main church. The left one is a grave chapel. This group of buildings is guessed once being a monastery.,_Ayval%C4%B1k

Haci Bektas Veli And Mosque Complex

Haci Bektas Veli
He was born in 1209 in Nisabur city of Horasan and died in 1270 in Hacibektas. He was coeval of Mevlana. His grave is in Haci Bektas Veli Tomb of Hacibektas district. In some of the sources his birth and death dates are mentioned one or two years differently. On 73th century Haci Bektas Veli, came to Anatolia from Horasan, located on the east of todays’ Iran. He was grown up beside Ahmet Yesevi, the great Turkish philosopher, in Horasan, the city hosted many famous theologians and philosophers at those years. He was educated in philosophy, science and social sciences. The period that Haci Bektas Veli came to Anatolia befitted with the period on which Seljukian political unification started to collapse. During that period, Haci Bekta§ Veli traveled to each village of Anatolia and endeavored alot for Anatolians’ becoming Turkish and Muslim. His philosophy was established on tolerance and human love and in a short period he was accepted by the public. He found a school in Hacibektas district and gave education to many students. He has written many pieces and among them ‘Velayetname’ (authorization) is the most important one which reads his life and his conception. After 100-150 years later his death, his doctrine was systematized by Balim Sultan and these conceptions became the roots of a religious order, called as ‘Bektasilik’. Many thinkers and troubadours from this religious order came up during the time and among these Pir Sultan Abdal is the most well known one.
Haci Bektas Veli Mosque Complex
The Mosque Complex was constructed at the beginning of 13th century during Seljuk period. In the following centuries, various addings were done and the Mosque Complex reached out its shape of today. Now, the Mosque Complex serves as Haci Bektas Veli Museum. Haci Bektas Museum: The Museum was opened to visitors on 1964 after renovations; at the beginning the pieces from the locale were exhibited. On 1988, Archeological and Ethnographic Museum was opened on 1988 and some of the pieces from Haci Bektaq Museum was transfered to the new Museum. Today, in the Museum, you may only see work of art of Haci Bektas Veli. The Museum was formed around 3 courtyard. The first courtyard falls outside of today’s museum entrance. On the right side of this courtyard, Ugler Cesmesi (Fountain), which was constructed by Fevzi Baba on 1897 and on it Muhr-u Suleyman (stamp of Suleyman) was placed. Unfortunately stud farm, bakery, hostel, bath, wash house and toilet rooms, located in the first courtyard, were not able to reach today.
Beginning from the entrance of the museum, you may reach to the second courtyard by passing through Ugler Kapisi (Ugler Gates). The second courtyard was named Dergah Avlusu (Courtyard) and just on the right side there is Aslanh Cesme (Fountain). Successively, Asevi and Tekke Mosque follows the fountain. On the left side of the courtyard from the entrance you may visit Meydan Evi (House) and also in the middle of the courtyard there is a repository dated 1908. The entrance of the third courtyard is through Altilar Kapisi (Gate). The structure in the courtyard which welcomes you at the first sight is called Pir House and the Tomb of Haci Bektas Veli was located in this structure. Beside that there is a Cilehane (Trial House) and other Bektasi followers’graves were located in it. On the rigth side of Pir House due to the entrance there is Balim Sultan Tomb. Next to the Tomb, you may see the graves of various dervishes.

Gulludere Valley

There is a long valley known as Meskendir Valley between Cavusin Village and Ortahisar town. Meskendir Valley can be accessed by Cavusin side as well as the side of Kaya Camping on the Ortahisar-Go’reme road. Meskendir Valley is a composition’of valleys in a sense, and is one of the important trekking courses of the Cappadocia. Three big parallel valleys from Boztepe side (1325 m) are extended to cut the Meskendir Valley in a vertical angle. This valleys, starting from Cavusin side, are called Gulludere II, Gulludere I and Kizilgukur Valleys. The first valley starting from about 2 km south of Qavusin Village and extended in east-west direction, is Gulludere II valley. On the point where it approaches Boztepe the valley curves to connect to Gulludere I valley. Gulludere II and I valleys are special trekking courses, and they house many churches. These churches are respectively Ug Hagh (Three Cross), Ayvali, Hagh (Crossed), Yovakim and Anna churches. Valleys are quite confusing, so trekking should be accompanied by a local guide knows the region well.

Cappadocia History and Civilizations

The Kingdom of Tabal (BC 900-680)

One of the Neo Hittite City States, the Kingdom of Tabal was established in Cappadocia region. The center of the kingdom was Tuvvana, close to Nigde Kemerhisar and its territories were covering today’s Kayseri, Nigde and Nevsehir. During Roman period, this region was named as Tyana. Among the Neo Hittite City States, the Kingdom of Tabal was the one which was situated in the very west.

Phrygians (750-676 BC)

While talking about the old nations of Cappadocia, it is important to mention the names of Mushkis and Phrygians. It is obvious that the dark period of Iron Era was ended by the Phrygians who were leading the first political recovery in Central Anatolia. The societies which formed the Phrygians were the hordes coming through Thrace to Anatolia in the years of 1200 BC. At the begining, these hordes settled down in Marmara Region and then, they started to move into Anatolia. Among these, there were Mushkis who were accepted as the ancestors or pioneers of Phrygians. The Mushkis, who were also mentioned in Assyrian texts, were living in migrotory way until they managed a political unification. The land of Mushkis within the territory of Cappadocia later on has been become the Kingdom of Tabal and it consisted of the region in north west and north east.

In the region, the Phrygians at first encountered with the locals and gained the identity of a nation and then with the period of King of Midas, they managed to create a political unity. Although they had the roots of Indo-European society, they effected a lot by the Neo Hittite culture. Of course the interaction was mutual. For example, the safety pin of Varpalavas, the King of Tabal, was a typical Phrygian fibula. The Phrygians, whose center was Gordion close to Polatli Ankara, were neighbour and coeval of Kingdom of Tabal, Neo Hittite City State and dominated Cappadocia. Today during the excavation in Cappadocia and mounds surrending, the foundlings belongs to Phrygians after the Hittite period shows us that they were able to span to Cappadocia. During the Phrygian period, Anatolia has been witnessing the emigration of Cimmerian and later on Iskit hordes, which was accepted one of the biggest invasion after the Aegean one. Starting from 700 BC, the Cimmerian were moving from Caucasians towards Anatolia and after overwearing Urartians, they gravitated to Central Anatolia. Therefore, the battle between Cimmerian and Phrygian were inevitable. After this war, the land of Phrygia was overwhelmed. Cimmerian pressure and attacks culminated in the suicide of its last king, Midas, (676 BC).

The domination of Medes and Persians in Anatolia

As the Phrygians fell down, Cimmerians immediately became neighbours of Lydia State (680-545 BC), who has chosen Sardes near Manisa as a capital city. The attacks and pressure of Cimmerian also caused the defections in Lydia State. But at that moment Cimmerians suddenly left Anatolia because of an unknown reason. After Cimmerians, the Medes and Persian periods started in Anatolia. Medes and Persians formed of hordes, emigrating to Iran through Caucasians at 1300 BC. At the beginning they had nomadic life but during the time, they managed a political unification and they created a great civilization where they were settled down.

Medes State, appeared on the scene of history around 700 BC. On 612 BC, Medes joined with Iskits and destroyed the most powerful political union of Asia Minor, the Assyrian Empire. On 585 BC, Medes went ahead Anatolia and finalized the hegemony gf Urartian State. After this success, Medes continued to span in Anatolia and settled down also in Cappadocia region. The Medes domination continued in Anatolia until 550 BC when, the Persians destroyed Medes and caused Medes’ worn off the history. Starting from this year, the Persians started to span in Anatolia and took the control of the region from east until the Kizilirmak and became the neighbour of Lydia. Under this circumstance, the battle of Lydia and Persian seemed very close. The Persian State won this battle and after 547 BC, they took the control of whole Anatolia. The domination of the Persians in Anatolia ended on 331 BC by the King of Macedonia, Alexander the Great, who won many battles against the Persians and caused the collapsed of Persian Empire.

During the Persian period in Anatolia (547-331 BC), Cappadocia, naturally was under control of the Persians. The Persians administrated Anatolia by ‘satrap’ which was kind of military governor. The center of Cappadocia Satrap was in Kayseri. The Persians build the famous ‘King Road’ which started from Ephesus, passed through Cappadocia and reached to Mesopotamia, at this period. The name of Cappadocia for the first time was mentioned in the Persian scripts of this period. In one of the scripts on a column built in the period of the Persian King Dareios I, who was in the government between 522 and 486 BC, mentioned the word Katpatuka’. This word means Cappadocia in Persian language. One may say that the word Katpatuka in Persian language means ‘beautiful horse land’ but of course there are many different approaches on the roots and the meaning of the word.

The Kingdom of Cappadocia (332BC-17AC)

The King of Macedonia, Alexander the Great, did not come across strong resistance in Anatolia during his famous Asia expedition on 331 BC, which conduced the end of Persian domination. Only the Persian Satrap of Cappadocia resisted to Alexander. The King took the possession of South west part of Cappadocia and continued his expedition. After Alexander’s departure, on 332 BC Ariarates, one of the supporters of Persians, took the control as a semi independent king of Cappadocia. Ariarates continued his kingship of Cappadocia until 333 BC, when Alexander the Great suddenly died because of tropical malaria. After the death of Alexander, Perdiccas took the control and in order to add Cappadocia to the Empire, he killed Ariarates by a glory. However, the conflict between the two sides never ended. At the end of the conflicts, the supporter of the Persians became strong and starting from 280 BC the Kingdom of Cappadocia became a settled down power in the region. Later on, fora long time the Kingdom of Cappadocia had to fight against the ones who wanted to take the control of the region. After the battles against Galats (Celts), Macedonians, Pontus and Romans, the Kingdom lost power and at first had to recognize the domination of Pontus and then the domination of Romans. On 17 AC, the Kingdom of Cappadocia became one of the provinces of Romans in Anatolia.

The Roman Period in Cappadocia (17-395 AC)

The Cappadocia, which became one of the provinces of Roman Empire on 17, during Tiberius period, layed over a wide region, surrounded by Samsun on North, Adana on South, Salt Lake on west, Firat River on East. The region reduced the circumstances because of the long war period. The region was tried to be arouse by reducing the taxes as well as building roads and utilities such as roads between Galatian and Cappadocia and the connections of Nevsehir to West.

During the Roman period, there are three main centers in Cappadocia. These are Kayseri (Casearea), Kemerhisar (Tyana) and Avanos (Venessa). We know that during the Roman period, the Sassanids of Iran (226-651) attacked the Cappadocia region. Moreover, Kayseri was under control of Sassanids for a short period. The Roman Emperor Gordianus III, built up city wall around Kayseri in order to prevent the Sassanid invasions. This city wall was strengthened in later centuries on Byzantian and Islamic period. The other threat for the region at the same period was the Goths who entered Anatolia through Thrace. The Romans became very weak because of the internal and external conflicts and on 395 the Empire divided into two, East and West.

Pervasion of Christianity in Anatolia

During the Roman Empire period, the Christianity, spreading among the Jewish society in Palestine, confronted with the authoritarian attitude of Roman governorship which apotheosized the institutions of empire. In this period, Christianity was sprawling fast and diversified because of the different interpretations. The ones who were against of this diversification prepared the bases of Orthodox thought. During these years, while the first Chritians were suffering, alio loco Basileos (Basileos, Basil, Basileios) the Archbishop of Kayseri (329-379), was laying down the foundation of Orthodoxism in Cappadocia. In the history of Christianity, monastery life style has started in Egypt at the end of 3rd century and the beginning of 4th century, and then generalized in Palestine and Syria immediately. Basileos during his stay

in Egypt and Syria, followed this development closely. Therefore, the similiar style’s starting in Cappadocia during Basileos period cannot be a coincidence. These years were the ones, which the Christians who wanted to continue their prays in a peaceful atmosphere drawed away in the rocky areas of Cappadocia and built up monastries and churches into the rocks. Goreme area is one of the first settlement areas. In one of the text which read the life of Basileos, Goreme is mentioned for the first time as ‘Korama’.

The three important Saint of Cappadocia are Basileos ofKayseri, his brother Gregorios of Nevsehir (bishop of Nyssa) and Gregorios of Nazianzos. They were the founders of monastery life style in Cappadocia. The Bekarlar Village ofAksaray today is thought to be Nazianzos. The Mosque-Church in Guzelyurt, was built in the name of this Saint. The majority of the Cappadocia region accepted Christianity before the Roman Empire because of these three Saints and their studies in the region. The first Christians established a life style which based on the cooperation. In this period, Christianity seemed as a religion for the poors. Later on the philosophy of cooperation started to fall off. During the period of Roman Emperor Julianus Apostata (361-363), there were many oppressions on the people in order to bend the effectiveness of Basileos. The Emperor Diokletianus divided the province into two; North and South (372) in order to narrow the effect of him as well. But within the Romans Christianity was embraced quickly.

During the Theodosius period (379-395) the Christianity became the official religion of the state and polythesim was forbidden.

The Byzantine Empire Period (395-1453)

After the division of Roman Empire into two on 395, Cappadocia region stayed within the territory of East Roman Empire whose capital was Istanbul (Constantinopolis). The first years of Byzantines passed full of with conflicts occured because of religion and religious sects. During that period Sassanids were situated at the east border of Byzantines. The Sassanids who was ruling regions including Iran and Irak between 226 and 651, had conflicts first with Romans and then the Byzantines. On 608, the Crown of Sassanids Husrev II, attacked Byzantines and captured Kayseri.. Kayseri stayed under control of Sassanids until 611. The Sassanids lost Kayseri and expiled on 611 but on 626 they re¬captured Kayseri and continued their moving along.

‘Four Caliphs Period’ of Islamic history was the end of the Sassanids. It was collapsed on 651 during the period of Osman. Sassanids’ falling down, meant Byzantines that one of the important enemies disappeared. But Arabic originated Umayyads, centralized in Sam (661-750) and then Abbasids (750-1258) immediately became the important enemies of Byzantines. The Umayyads attacked Cappadocia region on 709 and captured the city of Tyana. The attacks continued until 713 and almost the whole Cappadocia was under the control of Arabs. On 726 Kayseri was under attacked of Arabs once more. The Christians of the region started to draw back to the underground cities

and caves in order to protect themselves from Arab invasions as well as to be able to pray freely. After this period the number of Cave Churches increased quite a lot. On 726, the Byzantine Emperor Leon III, somehow managed to expile Arabs from Kayseri and add the region till Malatya back to Byzantine territories. The same Emperor forbit the icons and paintings of the churches. This period was between the years of 726 and 843 and lasted for 117 years and it is called as ‘Iconoclasm‘, which is the deliberate destruction. On 843, the Empress Theodore liberated the icons again. The reasons behind this prohibitations were to reduce the impact of priests on the government and to get rid of the dedication for the icons like worshiping. Islam can be accepted as an other reason for this prohibition. During this Iconoclasm period there happened many conflicts. As the supporters of Iconoclasm got stronger in Byzantine, the supporter of the cross current hided themselves in the rocky area of Cappadocia region and built up churches with icons freely. That helped the acceleration of the cave churches in Cappadocia. In this period only around Goreme, there built up 400 churches. Byzantine was under attack of Arabs during the Abbasi period as well. Even, at that period, Byzantine tried to protect its territories from invasion by paying taxes to Abbasi State. But since Byzantine did not pay the tax, the Abbasian Caliph Harun Resid (786-809), occupied Tyana. During the time, Arab oppression in the region got looser and looser.

The Seljuks (1040-1318) The Great Seljuk Empire (1040-1157), established by Turks, domiciled around Iran and was the Eastern neighbour of Byzantine. Later one, Seljuk Empire accepted Islam. After that date, the spreading of Turks in Anatolia can be seen. Because of that the states who accepted each other as a barrier, encountered. After the victory of Alparslan the Sultan of Seljuk Empire against Romanos Diogenes, the Emperor of Byzantine, in Battle of Malazgirt; Byzantine lost power in the region and therefore the doors of Anatolia were open to the other Turk societies. The Sultan Alpaslan authorized his Turcoman generals to carve their own principalities out of formerly Byzantine Anatolia, as atabegs loyal to him. One of them was Danishmendis in central and North Anatolia (1086-1178). The Danishmendis together with Anatolian Seljuks fight against Crusaders. But as a contradiction, the atabeg was ruined by Anatolian Seljuks. The work of art Danishmendis are exhibited in Cappadocia, especially in Kayseri. During the period of Great Seljuk Empire, Suleyman Shah was nominated to conquer Anatolia; he got many successes and conquered the great portion of Anatolia in a short time. He declared that Anatolian Seljuk State (1078-1318) was established, centralized Iznik. On 1157, Sultan Sencer was died and the empire was almost collapsed; this moment Seljuks were gathered under Anatolian Seljuk State. During that period, the Mongoloids, dominating the Iran region, was drawing attention as an invader power in Anatolia. The defeat of Kosedag Battle against Mongoloids on 1243 and especially after 1277 the Mongoloids domination was seen in Anatolia. Because of all these, on 1318, Anatolian Seljuk State completely destroyed. During Anatolian Seljuk period, many important buildings such as mosques, madrasahs, cupolas, inns and caravansaries were built up.

The Mongoloids are in Cappadocia (1318-1398)

After the falling down of Anatolian Seljuk State, the Turkcoman beyliks countiuned their existance in Anatolia. Among them there was Kayi Beylik which would be the founder of Ottoman Empire in the future. During this period, the Mongoloids influence was continuing in Anatolia. On 1318, the Mongoloids assigned Timurtas as a governor to Anatolia. During his period, the capital city moved to Kayseri from Sivas. Timurtas, who gained power in the region, afterwards declared his independence. On 1327, after Timurtas’ death, there occured an authority gap and one of his follower Eretna Bey filled this gap and on 1343 he declared his independence and dominate the region. Eretna Bey, who is originated from Uyghur Turks, by dominating the whole Central Anatolia, defined first Sivas and then Kayseri as a center. The Beylik of Eretna on 1381, after the first interial conflicts, demolished by Kadi Burhanettin who was promoted to vizierate from Kadi of Kayseri. The period of 1381-1398 was known as Kadi Burhanettin period in the region. Kadi Burhanettin was killed on 1398 by Akkoyunlus.

The Karamanogullan who managed to get the control of Nevsehir on 1365 during the internal conflict of Eretna Beylik, conquered the whole region by taking the advantage of Kadi Burhanettin’s murder.

The Karamanogullan (1256-1483)

The Karamanogullan, dominating the South of Central Anatolia was Turkcomans. They were originated from Oghuz Clan’s Avsar Tribe and they accepted Turkish as an official language and forbit the usage of Persian in scriptures. One of the most important competitors of Karamanogullan in Anatolia was Ottoman Beylik who had a new identity after 1299. The Karamanogullan who were mostly dominating Konya region, tried to reach to Cappadocia during the time.

The Ottomans’ Sultan Yildinm Beyazit organized an expedition against Karamanogullan who got the region after the death of Kadi Burhanettin and on the same year the Ottomans seized the region and dominated it between 1398 and 1402. At the same time, the Mongol Empire, established a great civilization around Central Asia, Iran and Mesopotamia, entered to Anatolia with the troops of Timur. They managed to got Sivas and began to move towards West through Kayseri. On 1402, the troops of Timur won the Battle of Ankara against the Ottomans and there occured again Mongoloid domination in the region. But they left the administration of the lands to Turk Beyliks who have been settled down in the region before. Thereby, the region became under control of Karamanodullan once again (1402-1436). The Karamanogullan has been erased from the scene of the history by Ottoman Sultan, Mehmet II, the Conqurer, on 1483. The work$. of art in the region, remained from the Karamanogullan are interesting in the sense of usage of plaster and ceramic tile.

The other Turcoman Beylik was Dulkadirogullan who was effective in the area of Maras and Malatya (1337-1522). During the hegemony wars between the Ottomans and Memluks and Karamanogullan on the east, DulkadiroQullan was kind of buffer zone. The Ottoman Sultan, Murad II, the Conquerer, on 1463 had a cooperation with Dulkadirogullan in order to end the domination of Karamanogullan in the region. After this cooperation, Kayseri and its surroundings were left to the control of Dulka’diro^ullari. The efficiency of Dulkadirogullan in the region continued between 1436 and 1515. On 1522, the Dulkadirogullan Beylik was demolished by the Ottomans.

The Ottoman Empire (1299-1923)

On 1453, the Ottomans terminated the Byzantines by conquering Istanbul and because of the conquer movement in a short period, the Ottomans showed a great develop and owned a larger geography. Since the Cappadocia region is situated in the mid lands of the Ottoman Empire, it has not witnessed any battles. Addition to that, during the years, one of the grandviziers, from Nevsehir Damat Ibrahim Pasha has tried to enable the developments in Nevsehir; Karavezir Mehmet Seyyid Pasha has shown efforts to develop Gulsehir and Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha endeavoured a lot for the development of Incesu. After the First World War, the Ottoman Empire was defeated and lost most of its lands. During that era, many regions of Anatolia was occupied by prevailing countries. The Sultan and his followers were thinking about leaving the country under the hegomonia of prevailing countries but on the contrary to this thought, Anatolian community gathered under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and started Independence War against occupying countries. The Independence War was ended on 1923 with the victory of Anatolia. Today, Turkish Republic whose territories was created on 1923 by Lozan Treaty tries to protect and keep the peace in land. , The ancient name of Nevsehir is mentioned as ‘Nyssa’ (Nysa) in various centers however the territory of the ancient city Nyssa has not been defined clearly yet. Some of the researchers believe in that Nyssa was situated in Nar borough which is nearby Nevsehir. On the other hand, some researches say that as it was mentioned in Ramsay, Nevsehir was established on to ancient city ‘Soandos’ or very close to Soandos. We leave these arguments dispense with time and let’s have look to Muskara.

Muskara was the name of today’s Nevsehir in Ottoman times. Muskara, which was the birthplace of Damat Ibrahim Pasha, a symbol oftheLale Era, first started as a village of Urgup (which was a borough of Niijde) then became a district of Nigde and finally in 1954 became a province. In 1725 under his order, the name of Muskara, which was a village of Urgup, was changed to Nevsehir meaning new city. This was followed by some administrative changes resulting in the chairman of Urgup being assigned to Nevsehir and the appointment of Nevsehir as centre of a borough. At the same time Urgup’s bazaar was moved to Nevsehir and taxation was lifted which made life in Nevsehir more attractive. By taking many precautions against migration to Istanbul, Damat Ibrahim Pasha helped the local population grow. A busy construction of bridges, inns, Turkish baths, madrasahs (schools for general and theological education) and mosques followed. Amongst these structures, Damat Ibrahim Pasha Mosque Complex is surely the best known.