Madrasah Date Madrasah Turkey Madrasah Cappadocia
MadrasahThese were Seljuk schools where people received education in culture, science and art. In Medrese, as in today’s high schools and universities, education was given in four main subjects; Religion and law, language and literature, philosophy and sciences. There was not an established period of time for education.
Students would complete their education in different periods of time since the requirement to complete education was to finish books. Educational sessions would start after the morning prayer and continue until the noon prayer. Then students would retreat to their study cells surrounding the courtyard.
They would usually have Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays off. Linked to mosques and mescids, first medresses were special places for education either near these buildings or in them. Later on Seljuk Sultans had medresses built -usually as medical schools-,named after their wives as well as themselves.
Researchers think that the origin of the architecture of medresses came from Egypt and Central Asia. Anatolian Seljuk Medresses, which started appearing in the 12th century, had either open or covered courtyards. Medresses with open courtyards are the most common type. Along with the ones with two storeys, this type of medresse may have one, two, three or four eyvans. (Eyvan: three-walled vaulted antechamber)
The second main type of medresses are the ones that have a large central place covered with a big dome instead of an open courtyard.
THE HUNAT HATUN MADRASAH
MadrasahThe Medrese, established in 1237/1238 by Hunad (Mahperi) Hatun, the wife of Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat I, is located in the Hunad Hatun Külliye, (Külliye: a collection of buildings of an institution, usually composed of schools, a mosque, lunatic asylum, hospital, kitchen, etc.) composed of a mosque, a Turbe (tomb) and a bath house.
The Medrese, with a rectangular plan, and open courtyard and two eyvans, has round supporting towers. Even though the eastern portal has partly collapsed, it is obviously a good example of Seljuk stonemasonry. On the long sides of the courtyard, surrounded with arched high porticoes, are a total of sixteen vaulted-cells, eight on each side. The vaults, walls and the ceilings of the side cells are covered with regular stone. The places to the left and right of the entrance hall are symmetrical and the mescid is in the right wing.
The main eyvan, across the entrance, has a monumental appearance due to its depth and high barrel vaults. Its outer frame and the niches on the side walls are decorated with geometrical motifs. To the left of the main eyvan is the square planned classroom and to the right are the rooms with internal divisions.
THE TASKINPASA MADRASAH Madrasah
It is located by the side of the UrgupSoganli road in the village of Damsa (Taskinpasa), 20km south of Ürgüp. The Medrese, built by the Karamanids (the Karamanids: a fourteenth-century dynasty in Konya, that dominated this part of Anatolia for almost 250 years.) is 22.60 m by 23.85 m.
Its portal, the mihrab in its mescid, its door and windows were laid using stone cut into blocks whereas rough stones were used in building the walls. Although its upper stores has completely collapsed, it is understood from the flight of stairs to the left of the entrance that it had at least two storeys.
The impressive stonemasonry seen on the portal on the western side is in classical Seljuk style. The portal is decorated entirely with geometrical and floral designs. The inscription, that should be found above the entrance, has been lost. To the right of the entrance with a basket-handled arch is the mescid of the medresse. Its mihrab, like the portal, is decorated with rich floral motifs. The upper part of it is embellished with lines of palm leaves whereas floral designs are used with the double lined border.
Surrounding the rectangular planned open courtyard are a number of unconnected rooms.