The Barbara Church is the most disputable church of the region because of its frescoes. The central dome of this church is supported by two columns and corner walls. Its plan looks like that of the Çarıklı Church with the side entrance and the three apsides. Though very much devastated, the pediment at the entrance can still be noticed. We see the figure of a sitting and consecrating Christ at the central apsis.

The two famous saints of Cappadocia, Georgius and Theodorus, are pictured killing the dragon on the northern wall which faces the entrance. The figure of St. Barbara who gives the name of the church, is to be found on the western wall. Furthermore Falibon and Leon whose names appear on the inscripts, are thought to be the erecters of the church.

Researchers and travellers have been discussing the pictures of the Barbara Church since a long time because the meanings of these are quite obscure. Next to the stylized cedar trees and the rooster which symbolizes alertness and the betrayal of St. Petrus, we see the picture of a grasshopper on the northern wall. The grasshopper moving towards the cross symbolizes the christening of various peoples.

We see a lot of crosses and mysterious symbols painted all over the church. These red diagrammatic forms like crosses, triangles, columns, medals, and unidentified animals were probably painted by the first rock carvers to protect themselves from ill omens.

There are also interpreters who think that the Barbara Church dates back to the Iconoclastic Period precisely because of these mysterious figures.

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