The altitude of the Cappadocia region is around 1100 meters. It has a continental climate where the summers are hot and rainless and the winters are cold and rainy. The winter starts from mid December and lasts until mid March and brings with it snow, while the Spring brings rain. Usually it doesn’t rain during the summer and autumn months. The region is poor in greenery and the vegetation can be described as steppe. In order to have more information about the weather forecast, you may visit the below address:
Meteorology Tel: +90 (0) 312 359 75 45 www.meteor.gov.tr
Land of Anatolia, that our country exists on it today, was named as “Small Asia” in old periods especially among the west societies. The region, which is called Cappadocia was used to define definite settlement and civilization region in Anatolia in antiquity.
In Antiquity the region of Cappadocia was comprising very large geographical area compared to our definition of today. Borders of the region was reaching up to the coasts of Black Sea before Christ (B.C.) sixth century. Before Christ (B.C.) in the year of 360 region splited into two main parts. One of them was called Cappadocia of Black Sea or Pontos and the other one was called Big Cappadocia. The region of Big Cappadocia was consisting Kirsehir, Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, Kayseri, Yozgat, Malatya, east of Ankara, south of Sivas and north ofAdana of today. Borders of Cappadocia were changed many times later. Today, Cappadocia is understood as a region which includes Nev§ehir as a center, and lands which are geographically continuation of Nevsehir in Aksaray, Kirsehir, Kayseri and Nigde.
The 19th century church, located in Bayramli quarter and very close to Derinkuyu Underground City. Due to the inscription over the west entrancn of the Church, it is written that, the Church has been constructed on 15 May 1858, with the permission of Ottoman Sultan Abdulmecid and the donations of Malakopia (Derinkuyu) Christians. Today the first two letters of the date section of inscription is damaged. On the top of the inscription there is a cross relief with ivy look and there are four birds situated at the corners. On the right and left side of the cross there are other relieves such as on the left side Saint Georgios figured on the horse and fighting with a serpent (monster). Beside the stone work of the Church, the bell tower is also very attractive. And fortunately the frescoes of the Church had the chance of reaching today. During Republic period, the Church has been used as a mill for a long time. Once it was used as a museum and today the Church is closed to public but one or two times in a year it is open to Christians for using.
During the Bronze Age, especially on the period between 3000 BC and 2000 BC, it is known that communities which tried to become a nation such as Hattis, LUVIs and Hurrians, have been existed on Anatolian lands. Unfortunately we do not have that much information about these communities. In recent years, the conception of these communities’ being Anatolia originated become prevalent. The only information that we have today Is, these communities effected quite alot the nations especially the Hittites, existed after them. Due to language, scripture and religous life, the Hittites were effected by their peers not only before them but also in their era. This interaction occured because of their living together for many years.
This terrace is on the road of Avanos-Urgup and 5 km far from Avanos. The area of scenery terrace is in the Orgiip-Avanos district border. The Dervent Valley extending from Zelve Open Air Museum to Orgup is a very nice trekking and excursion area. Animal like formations in the valley of interesting view of fairy chimneys are amazing. The camel like rock just by side of the road became a symbol of the area, so to speak. If you continue to walk into the valley, and depending on your imagination you can see seal, lion, bull, bird, etc. You may stay above on the terrace and watch the valley in which photographers can find many subjects to shoot.
The history starts with scripture. At this sense, human being’s finding the scripture is the turning point in history. The period before the scripture is named as prehistoric period and by the usage of scripture the periods are named as historical ages. The first usage of scripture has been reclined on 3200 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The usage of scripture became widespread in Anatolia starting from 1900 BC. The scripture has been brought to Anatolia by Assyrians who had commercial aims. That’s why, the beginning of Historical Ages in Anatolia befitted to Assyrians Commercial Colonies Era (1900-1800 BC).
Hittites and scripture
It is known that the Hittites are the first community in Anatolia, used scripture. The Hittites used two different types of scriptures. One of them was cuneiform script which they have learnt from Assyrian trade men and the other was Hittite hieroglyph. They have translated Assyrian cuneiform script into their own language and used it mainly for commercial correspondences. Later on the other cuneiform script that used by Hittites was Babylon originated and used between 1650 BC and 1200 BC. The scripture known as Hittite Hieroglyph was developed by LUVIs, one of Anatolian communities. This type of scripture has been developed on the basis of symbols during the Assyrian Colonies Era and later on it has become a scripture of diagram and syllables. The Hittites mostly used this scripture on cave carved and stone monuments. The language of this scripture mostly used by the local inhabitants called LUVICIAN.
If you continue 1 more km after Pasabaglan road you will drop in front of the Zelve Open Air Museum. The place of the open air museum used to be the place of Zelve Village. The village that we called Old Zelve is known as one of the important religious centers of the Christianity between 9th and 13th centuries. A large population was living in the village where initial religious seminars given to priests. The Old Zelve settlement established by carving the rocks at slopes of three big valleys survived as a center where Greeks and Turks used to live together till 1924 exchange. Following the exchange only Turkish communities continued to live here. After 1950, due to the risque of collapse of rocks, the village was evacuated and moved to 2 km far Aktepe Village. Some called it New Zelve. Zelve Open Air Museum is one of the most popular visiting sites with its natural formations, impressive landscape and historical structures. Around 15 churches without frescoes built during Iconoclasm take place at the museum site.
Beginning from Neolithic period human being’s settling down and establishing villages and sites as well as the necessity of corresponding the needs of the cities have brought up tho intor-civilazation commercial. The period of WO years between 1900 and 1800 BC, was named by the historians ;is ‘Assyrian Commercial Colonial Era’ because of Assyrians’ establishing commercial collonies in Anatolia. By paying taxes to the local kingdoms, the Assyrian traders have been established ‘Karum’ which were market like districts, nearby the big cities. These districts can be accepted as the first implementation of the today’s free zones, 4000 years ago. The Assyrian traders have been brought tin and textile from Mesopotamia by caravan consisted of 200 -250 donkeys and as a reward for in Anatolia, they have been bought gold and silver.
The Hittites, Anatolian glory
It is assumed that Assyrian Commercial Colony period has been ended as the traders left Anatolia because of the wars between the local kingdoms around 1800 BC. The foundlings of fire in many of the Karums, which has belonged to Assyrians, are supporting this thesis quite a lot.
We might say that, at the beginning of 1900 BC, the Hittites period has started in Anatolia. It is thought that Hittites were one of the local nations of Anatolia but beside this thesis, there is an other one which says that, Hittites came from Caucasians to Anatolia. It seems that this discussion will be clear as the new foundlings and researches are done. According to the written tablets, the first settlement of Hittites were in the cities ofKussara and Nesa. It is anticipated that Ku§sara is today’s Ali§ar close to Corum and Ne§a is today’s Kanis close to Kayseri. Later on, Hittites have chosen Hattu§as near Qorum as a capital city. It is known that the first political unification in Anatolia has been created by Hittites. According to the written tablets that have been found in archives of Bogazkoy, Anitta, the King ofKussara, has been successful in gathering many independent cities of Anatolia under one governence by using the tactic of night descents. In later periods, in some of the texts it was written that some Hittite Kings have been crowing of being the grandchild of this man of Ku§§ara. During the years of 1500 BC, the strongest civilazations on earth were the Egyptians, Babylonians, Mitannis and Hittites. Because of this list, one may understand clearly that, the Hittite Civilazation who has been ruled Anatolia nearly 1000 years, has effected deeply the nations and civilizations established after them. The Hittite State history can be examined in three parts
The land of Anatolia, has been witnessed transaction of hordes which have been come from west and called ‘Sea Horde’ in Egyptian sources. This horde transaction, called ‘Aegean Emigration’ in the history, hns rnvngod everything that they cnmo across. This emigration got the biggest power in 1200 BC and because of them many of the great civilazations have lost power and fall down in time line. The falling down of Hittite Empire in central Anatolia and the falling down of Troia in Western Anatolia happened in this period as well.
The Hittite Empire has been fall down but it has not been disappear totally. Following the falling of the empire, there occured many city states in Anatolia. These city states, which
have been ruled the land for 500 years, have been called The Neo Hittite City States. The Neo Hittite City States created different styles due to the settlement area and nations that they
encountered with. As the Urartian State (840-585 BC) was being established in Eastern Anatolia, the dark era was dominating in
Central and Western Anatolia. This era can be accepted as deterioration and anarchy era in Anatolia in general. Since the usage of scripture was getting less, the historians calls this period Iron Era (1250-750 BC), they accept and examine it among the prehistoric eras.
Ayvali Church: It was built as dual space. Spaces are connected to each other by a door. Ornaments dated back to periods of before and after iconoclasm (726-843) can be seen together. A fresco on the connection door showing the Four Riders of Armageddon is spectacular. Hagh (Crossed) Church: There are two relief crosses at the plain roof of the church: the big one is Latin cross, and small one is Malta cross. At the end of the single main space, the apsis of the church takes place, and several frescoes at the apsis. You can see the fresco describing symbolically Jesus and four Bible writers around him. Yovakim and Anna Church: As known, Yovakim and Anna shown at the scene of Maria’s birth at the frescoes of the church are father and mother of Maria. The name of the church comes from this case. Although it was painted before the Iconoclasm, it is one of rare churches of which frescoes reached today. This church is a group of buildings. There are small chapels on right and left sides of the main church. The left one is a grave chapel. This group of buildings is guessed once being a monastery.
Haci Bektas Veli
He was born in 1209 in Nisabur city of Horasan and died in 1270 in Hacibektas. He was coeval of Mevlana. His grave is in Haci Bektas Veli Tomb of Hacibektas district. In some of the sources his birth and death dates are mentioned one or two years differently. On 73th century Haci Bektas Veli, came to Anatolia from Horasan, located on the east of todays’ Iran. He was grown up beside Ahmet Yesevi, the great Turkish philosopher, in Horasan, the city hosted many famous theologians and philosophers at those years. He was educated in philosophy, science and social sciences. The period that Haci Bektas Veli came to Anatolia befitted with the period on which Seljukian political unification started to collapse. During that period, Haci Bekta§ Veli traveled to each village of Anatolia and endeavored alot for Anatolians’ becoming Turkish and Muslim. His philosophy was established on tolerance and human love and in a short period he was accepted by the public. He found a school in Hacibektas district and gave education to many students. He has written many pieces and among them ‘Velayetname’ (authorization) is the most important one which reads his life and his conception. After 100-150 years later his death, his doctrine was systematized by Balim Sultan and these conceptions became the roots of a religious order, called as ‘Bektasilik’. Many thinkers and troubadours from this religious order came up during the time and among these Pir Sultan Abdal is the most well known one.
Haci Bektas Veli Mosque Complex
The Mosque Complex was constructed at the beginning of 13th century during Seljuk period. In the following centuries, various addings were done and the Mosque Complex reached out its shape of today. Now, the Mosque Complex serves as Haci Bektas Veli Museum. Haci Bektas Museum: The Museum was opened to visitors on 1964 after renovations; at the beginning the pieces from the locale were exhibited. On 1988, Archeological and Ethnographic Museum was opened on 1988 and some of the pieces from Haci Bektaq Museum was transfered to the new Museum. Today, in the Museum, you may only see work of art of Haci Bektas Veli. The Museum was formed around 3 courtyard. The first courtyard falls outside of today’s museum entrance. On the right side of this courtyard, Ugler Cesmesi (Fountain), which was constructed by Fevzi Baba on 1897 and on it Muhr-u Suleyman (stamp of Suleyman) was placed. Unfortunately stud farm, bakery, hostel, bath, wash house and toilet rooms, located in the first courtyard, were not able to reach today.
Beginning from the entrance of the museum, you may reach to the second courtyard by passing through Ugler Kapisi (Ugler Gates). The second courtyard was named Dergah Avlusu (Courtyard) and just on the right side there is Aslanh Cesme (Fountain). Successively, Asevi and Tekke Mosque follows the fountain. On the left side of the courtyard from the entrance you may visit Meydan Evi (House) and also in the middle of the courtyard there is a repository dated 1908. The entrance of the third courtyard is through Altilar Kapisi (Gate). The structure in the courtyard which welcomes you at the first sight is called Pir House and the Tomb of Haci Bektas Veli was located in this structure. Beside that there is a Cilehane (Trial House) and other Bektasi followers’graves were located in it. On the rigth side of Pir House due to the entrance there is Balim Sultan Tomb. Next to the Tomb, you may see the graves of various dervishes.